By Patrick Prouzet, Andr? Monaco
This quantity offers a variety of examples and dimensions, chemical, organic, climatic, or on the topic of severe (hazards). It describes, by way of reciprocity, the vulnerability of ecosystems, assets, background, human healthiness and, for this reason, fiscal and social sectors. it considers weather situations and socio-economic prestige signs examine, layout thoughts and styles of variation, improvement of leading edge tracking structures, research of perceptions of significant risks and valuation of atmosphere services.
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The excessive latitudes of the Arctic and Antarctic, including a few mountainous parts with glaciers and long-lasting snow, are often known as the cryosphere-defined as that part of the planet the place water is perennially or seasonally frozen as sea ice, snow hide, permafrost, ice sheets, and glaciers.
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More recently, at the start of the 1950s, Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley experimented with the transmission of nerve impulses. They came up with the brilliant idea of using a squid axon, with a crosssection around 1,000 times larger than that of mammals, which allowed them, in an era where electronic microscopes and digital methods did not exist, to use their glass electrodes. They highlighted the movements of ions on both sides of the plasma membrane of the neuron and proposed a mathematical model, still in use today, which helps in the understanding of the workings of the nerve cell.
Vertical mixing and deep thermohaline circulation Vertical differences in density can also cause water movements. This occurs in particular when surface water cools down, and sinks until it reaches a depth where water density is the same as its own. This way, enormous quantities of water leave the surface in a few areas of the northern North Atlantic and Southern Ocean in winter and horizontally spread in the deep ocean around the world. These waters circulate at a depth of 2,000–3,000 m for hundreds of years before 40 Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change returning to the surface (the residence time of seawater in the deep oceans is approximately 1,000 years but may reach 2,000 years).
Because this chapter focuses on general aspects of biogeochemical flows, only planktonic components of marine pelagic ecosystems will be considered below. 2. Main types of planktonic marine ecosystems Marine ecologists generally recognize three or four main types of planktonic marine ecosystems. g. 3, researchers combine various criteria. 3. – Most of the flows that account for <10% of total phytoplankton production are not illustrated here (except the few dotted arrows) to clearly stress the differences between the four types of ecosystems.
Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change by Patrick Prouzet, Andr? Monaco