Alexandra: A History - download pdf or read online

By Philip Bonner, Noor Nieftagodien

ISBN-10: 1868144801

ISBN-13: 9781868144808

Alexandra: A background, is a social and political heritage of 1 of South Africa’s oldest townships. It starts off with the founding of Alexandra as a freehold township in 1912, and strains its progress as a middle of black working-class lifestyles within the center of Johannesburg, to the post-apartheid period. Declared as a situation for "natives and coloureds," Alexandra turned domestic to a various inhabitants the place home-owners, tenants, squatters, hostel-dwellers, staff and migrants drawn from each nook of the rustic converged to make a lifestyles within the urban. The tales of standard everyone is on the center of the township’s historical past. according to rankings of lifestyles historical past interviews, the ebook portrays in bright element the day-by-day struggles and tribulation of Alexandrans. a spotlight aspect is the wealthy historical past of political resistance, within which civic hobbies and political organisations—such because the ANC, Communist celebration and socialist firms just like the stream for Democracy of Content—organized bus boycotts, antiremoval and antipass campaigns, and mobilized for housing and a greater lifestyles for citizens. however the booklet is not just approximately politics. It tells the tales of lifestyle, of the making of city cultures and of the notorious Spoilers and Msomi gangs. Over weekends Alexandra comes alive as football fits, church prone and shebeens vie for the eye of citizens. Alexandra: A History highlights the social complexities of the township, which from time to time reason pressure among diversified segments of the inhabitants, equivalent to among the "bona fides" and amagoduka, stand-owners and tenants or hostel-dwellers and township citizens. peculiarly else the neighborhood spirit of the folk of Alexandra, expressed in a fiercely dependable love for where, has again and again triumphed and endured.


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Federally funded scientific research was divided, in science historian, Derek de Solla Price’s terms, into “Big science” and “Little science” (Price, 1963). Big science began as a special province of high-energy physics, promoting ever more powerful particle accelerators. 1 The Vision and the Reality Passage of the NSF Act in 1950 gave Congress’s and the President’s stamp of approval to the Endless Frontier vision of basic research as a perpetual wellspring for technical and economic development.

For example, after President Roosevelt authorized development of the bomb, assigning to Vannevar Bush responsibility for organization of the Manhattan Project, Bush (himself an engineer) selected a colonel in that quintessential engineering organization, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Leslie Grove, to lead the effort. However, from the 1950s, scientists replaced engineers as the dominant leaders guiding federal policy in science and technology, and became the primary recipients of federal research funding.

Engineers were in charge of public health systems like water supply and sewage treatment. Their status was enhanced by spectacular achievements like bridges and skyscrapers of unprecedented height like the Chrysler and Empire State buildings in Manhattan (Jackson, 1995). T. 1007/978-0-387-75877-0_2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009 21 22 2 Tracing the Roots of the Conflict Fig. T. Manheim Civil engineers’ training included business law and finance. It was designed to equip graduates to handle human and administrative factors as well as master requisite scientific and technological skills.

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Alexandra: A History by Philip Bonner, Noor Nieftagodien

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