New PDF release: Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 41

By Renata Dmowska, Barry Saltzman

ISBN-10: 0120188414

ISBN-13: 9780120188413

This sequence offers a venue for longer experiences of present advances in geophysics. Written at a degree available to graduate scholars, the articles serve to develop wisdom of assorted fields and will be helpful in classes and seminars.

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Additional info for Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 41

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1 2 y fŽ1M . 1 y fŽ2. N 1 . Ž 10. A PCA is then performed in the transformed frequency domain, N Y Ý ␭ n u n†vn , n Ž 11. 1 where n in this context runs over the N distinct frequencies of the discrete Fourier transform of a data set of length N samples. The empirical orthogonal function ŽEOF. vm describes the complex spatial pattern in amplitude and phase of the nth eigenvector, and the N-vector u m now describes the combinations of pure harmonic components of variability that describe the relatively smooth time-evolution of the nth eigenvector.

From Mann Ž1998.. 40 MICHAEL E. MANN AND JEFFREY PARK ‘‘locally white’’ noise background should trivially be satisfied. 7% rate. This distribution is consistent with the expected rates of chance coincidence for rejecting the null hypothesis Ž1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively.. 1. 9 in Fig. 10.. 99, the observed spectrum is quite close to that for the white-noise case. 9999 1. does the distribution of the LFV spectrum noticeably depart from that of the pure white-noise case. 1 far exceeds unity. A more thorough experiment employing ensembles of 1000 random trials ŽTable II.

SSA Žand its multivariate counterpart M-SSA. , where L is the embedding dimension for the lagged-covariance estimation Žequivalently, the width, in time units, of an equivalent moving window through the time series.. Consequently, there are rather severe restrictions on the range of frequency bands over which temporal structure can be reconstructed simultaneously. , one may want to choose L 30 years with a 100-year record. , ENSO. with dominant time scales less than 6 years in this case. More importantly, in the multivariate context, the M-SSA approach runs up against severe dimensional limitations for large data sets.

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Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 41 by Renata Dmowska, Barry Saltzman

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