By Stephen Grossberg
Those books compile contemporary neural versions of imaginative and prescient, speech and language attractiveness and bear in mind, cognitive self-organization, conditioning, reinforcement, motivation, cognizance, circadian rhythms, motor regulate, and likely psychological problems. as well as unifying and predicting interdisciplinary info from psychology, psychophysiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and anatomy, the paintings indicates new real-time circuit designs for desktop imaginative and prescient and speech units, self-organizing development reputation machines, parallel processors, and adaptive robots.
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Extra info for Adaptive Brain
T o fire, it must receive simultaneous specific and nonspecific signals. However, only the CS is present on recall trials to activate both of these signals, since during recall trials, no UCS is presented to activate the nonspecific pathway. Thus the CS itself must activate both pathways. Before learning occurs, the CS does not have this capability. Somehow, as a result of pairing the CS and the UCS on learning trials, the CS gains control over the nonspecific pathway that is activated by the UCS.
1970) report data in which “hypothalamic stimulation . . ” These data are explicable if we assume that network drive representations include, or are activated by, these hypothalamic sites, and that brain stimulation acts like a drive input, albeit an artificial one. Then the network interpretation of the Valenstein e t al. data is that conditioned reinforcer inputs must be bolstered by drive inputs in order to activate the drive representations, which thereupon simultaneously release incentive signals and cause learned changes in the conditioned reinforcer LTM patterns.
Instead, it prevents consummation after saticat,y occurs. This type of drive reduction occurs slowly in time. The sudden reduction of a reinforcing cue or the sudden nonoccurrence of an expected reinforcer can also have reinforcing effects, but these rapid events do not reduce a drive input, although they do modify the activity of the drive representations (Grossberg, 1982a, 1984). 20. G o Mechanism, Amplifiers, Now P r i n t Several authors have proposed alternatives to the drive reduction hypothesis to explain data about reinforcement.
Adaptive Brain by Stephen Grossberg